Endometriosis is a benign
invasive process characterized by the existence of endometrium (tissue of
the internal layer of the uterine cavity) outside the uterus.
There are different theories about what originates it, but the reason is not
certainly known. It is supposed that, due to a congenital alteration, groups
or nests of endometrial cells are found in other parts of the body,
generally in the pelvis, although they can be placed somewhere else, even at
distance. The most frequent location in the abdominal area is in the ovaries
in a bilateral way.
From then on, these cells which form a tissue follow the typical changes in
each cycle, due to the hormonal influence as well as the own uterine
endometrium. However, each month the endometrium first proliferates, then
grows and finally it is released to the exterior, in a process known as
On the contrary, the cells located in the ovaries’ interior do not have an
exit to the exterior. Consequently, the desquamation is accumulated forming
cysts called chocolate cyst because of the blood they contain.
From the clinical point of view, the most curious characteristic of
endometriosis is the lack of correlation between the intensity of the
symptoms and the severity of the lesions.
The clinic of endometriosis is characterized by pain and infertility but
many times it doesn’t present any symptoms.
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